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Podcast 890: Outdoor Cold Air for Croup

Contributor: Jared Scott MD Educational Pearls: Croup is a respiratory condition typically caused by a viral infection (e.g., parainfluenza). The disease is characterized by inflammation of the larynx and...

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Podcast 889: Blood Pressure Cuff Size

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Does the size of a blood pressure (BP) cuff matter? A recent randomized crossover trial revealed that, indeed, cuff size can affect blood...

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Podcast 888: Low GCS and Intubation

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Is the adage, “GCS of 8, you’ve got to intubate” accurate? A recent study published in the November 2023 issue of JAMA attempted...

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Podcast 887: Family Presence in Cardiac Resuscitation

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: A 2013 study randomized families of those in cardiac arrest into two groups: Actively offered patients’ families the opportunity to observe CPR Follow...

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Podcast 886: Cough in Kids

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: Croup Caused by: Parainfluenza, Adenovirus, RSV, Enterovirus (big right now) Age range: 6 months to 3 years Symptoms: Barky cough Inspiratory stridor (Severe...

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Podcast 885: Penetrating Neck Injuries

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal MD Educational Pearls: Three zones of the neck with different structures and risks for injuries: Zone 1 is the most caudal region from the clavicle to...

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Laboring Under Pressure Episode 2: Postpartum Hemorrhage with Dr. Kiersten Williams

Contributor: Kiersten Williams MD, Travis Barlock MD, Jeffrey Olson MS2 Summary: In this episode, Dr. Travis Barlock and Jeffrey Olson meet in the studio to discuss a clip from...

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Podcast 884: Nerve Blocks

Contributor: Meghan Hurley MD Educational Pearls: What is a nerve block? A nerve block is the medical procedure of injecting anesthetic into the area around a nerve to block...

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Podcast 883: Migraine Treatment in Cardiovascular Disease

Contributor: Jorge Chalit, OMS II Educational Pearls: Migraine pathophysiology Primarily mediated through the trigeminovascular system Serotonin, dopamine, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) Trigeminovascular system is linked to the trigeminal...

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Podcast 882: Thrombolytics for Minor Strokes

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: How is the severity of a stroke assessed? Strokes are assessed by the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), this scale has different tasks, such...

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Podcast 881: Pediatric Readmissions

Contributor: Nick Tsipis MD Educational Pearls: The review article assessed 16.3 million patients across six states to identify those at high-risk for critical revisit Criteria for critical revisit was...

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Podcast 880: OB Delivery in the ED

Contributor: Meghan Hurley MD Educational Pearls: Pearls about labor: Labor is split into 3 stages. Stage 1 starts when the first persistent contractions are felt and goes up until...

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Podcast 879: A Case of Pediatric Anaphylactic Shock

Contributor: Dr. Taylor Lynch Educational Pearls: Time of arrival until intubation was 26 minutes but nobody tried anterior neck access like a cricothyrotomy until his dad arrived Traditional ACLS...

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Podcast 878: Opioids for Low Back and Neck Pain

Contributor: Jared Scott MD Educational Pearls: Should we use opioids to treat low back and neck pain? The OPAL Trial, published in The Lancet, in June 2023, attempted to...

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Podcast 877: Viral Respiratory Infections in Children

Contributor: Jared Scott MD Educational Pearls A recently published study assessed the burden of respiratory viruses in a longitudinal cohort of children from 0 to 2 years of age...

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Podcast 876: Sedation Pearls

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Common sedatives used in the Emergency Department and a few pearls for each. Propofol Type: Non-barbiturate sedative hypnotic agonizing GABA receptors. Benefit: Quick...

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Podcast 875: A Pediatric Case of Myopericarditis

Contributor: Meghan Hurley MD Educational Pearls: Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardial sac, which can arise from infectious or non-infectious etiologies Myocarditis is inflammation of the myocardium, which may...

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Episode 874: Bradyarrhythmias

Contributor: Dylan Luyten MD Educational Pearls: What is a Bradyarrhythmia? Also known as a bradyarrhythmia, it is an irregular heart rate that is also slow (below 60 beats per...

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Podcast 873: Intravesical Tranexamic Acid for Gross Hematuria

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a common medication to achieve hemostasis in a variety of conditions Patients visiting the ED for gross hematuria (between...

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Podcast 872: Preseptal and Orbital Cellulitis

Contributor: Meghan Hurley MD Educational Pearls: What is Cellulitis? A common and potentially serious bacterial skin infection. Caused by various types of bacteria, with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species being...

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Mental Health Monthly #17: Mania

Contributors: Andrew White MD – Outpatient Psychiatrist; Fellowship Trained in Addiction Psychiatry; Denver Health Travis Barlock MD – Emergency Medicine Physician; Swedish Medical Center Summary In this episode of Mental Health Monthly,...

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Podcast 871: Increased Intracranial Pressure and the Cushing Reflex

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Education Pearls: The Cushing Reflex is a physiologic response to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) Cushing’s Triad: widened pulse pressure (systolic hypertension), bradycardia, and irregular respirations...

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On The Streets #15: Hydrofluoric Acid Case Review

Contributors: Kalen Abbott, MD – EM Physician and Medical Director for AirLife Denver Brendan Reiss – Flight Nurse AirLife Denver Matt Spoon – Flight Paramedic AirLife Denver Jordan Ourada...

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Episode 870: Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS)

Contributor: Meghan Hurley MD Educational Pearls: What is ATLS? Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) is a systematic and comprehensive approach to the evaluation and management of trauma patients It...

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Podcast 869: Shift Work

Contributor: Meghan Hurley MD Educational Pearls: Shift work is defined as anything that takes place outside of a 9-5 schedule, not exempting day-shift medical workers Various ill effects of...

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Episode 868: Airway Management in Obesity

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Why is airway management more difficult in obesity? Larger body habitus causes the chest to be above the head when the patient is...

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Episode 867: Occult Scaphoid Fractures

Contributor: Nick Tsipis MD Educational Pearls: The scaphoid bone is the most proximal carpal bone just distal to the radius Fractures of the scaphoid bone are sometimes missed by...

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Podcast 866: Carbamazepine (Tegretol) Overdose

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: What is Carbamazepine (Tegretol)? Carbamazepine is an anti-epileptic drug with mood-stabilizing properties that is used to treat bipolar disorder, epilepsy, and neuropathic pain....

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Laboring Under Pressure- Episode 1. ACLS in Pregnancy with Dr. Jason Papazian

Contributor: Jason Papazian MD, Travis Barlock MD, Jeffrey Olson Summary: In this episode, Dr. Travis Barlock and Jeffrey Olson meet in the studio to discuss several clips from Dr....

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Podcast 865: Nausea Treatments – Droperidol vs Ondansetron RCT

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: A recent randomized controlled trial compared ondansetron 8 mg IV with droperidol 2.5 mg IV for the treatment of nausea & vomiting in...

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Podcast 864: Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) vs Venous Blood Gas (VBG)

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: What is measured in an ABG/VBG? Blood values for oxygen tension (pO2), carbon dioxide tension (pCO2), acidity (pH), oxyhemoglobin saturation, and bicarbonate (HCO3)...

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Podcast 863: Treatments for Alcohol Use Disorder

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Patients with alcohol use disorder are frequently discharged from the ED without further resources Pharmacological treatments to reduce cravings in AUD exist Naltrexone...

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Podcast 862: How to Apply a Painful Stimulus

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: When might you need to apply a painful stimulus in a medical setting? The main reason is to assess the patient’s level of...

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Podcast 861: Alcohol Withdrawal and Delirium Tremens

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Alcohol binds the GABA receptor, which produces an inhibitory response, hence the “depressive” effects of ethanol beverages. Over time, alcohol downregulates the GABA...

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Podcast 860: Thyrotoxicosis

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Clinical picture: A patient comes in with altered mental status, tachycardia, fever, elevated T4, and low TSH. What’s the diagnosis?… Thyrotoxicosis secondary to...

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Podcast 859: Teamwork Really Makes the Dream Work

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: 33 Medical residents and 91 nurses at Massachusetts General Hospital were randomized into two groups: Intervention group: 15 PGY-1 residents assigned to the...

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Podcast 858: Whole Blood Pregnancy Test

Contributor: Meghan Hurley MD Educational Pearls: What do you do if you need a stat pregnancy test on an incapacitated patient? You can send a serum quantitative human chorionic...

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Podcast 857: Alice in Wonderland Jeopardy

Contributor: Chris Holmes MD Educational Pearls: “It’s a poor sort of memory that only works backwards” – Transient Global Amnesia A syndrome with sudden retrograde memory loss in which...

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Podcast 856: ED Errors and Counterstudy

Contributor: Nicholas Tsipis, MD Educational Pearls: What study was Dr. Tsipis talking about? In December of 2022, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) put out a study...

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Podcast 855: QT Intervals

​​Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls The QT interval represents phases 2 and 3 of ventricular plateau and repolarization, respectively. As the QT interval lengthens, more sodium and calcium...

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Mental Health Monthly #16: Psychosis in the ED Part II

Contributors: Andrew White MD & Travis Barlock MD In this follow-up episode Dr. Andrew White, a practicing psychiatrist with an addiction medicine fellowship, and Dr. Travis Barlock, an emergency...

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Episode 854: Tranq (xylazine) with Heroin

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: What is Tranq? Tranq is the street name for xylazine, a sedative drug typically used in veterinary medicine. Xylazine has recently emerged as...

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Podcast 853: Critical Care Medications – Vasopressors

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Three categories of pressors: inopressors, pure vasoconstrictors, and inodilators Inopressors: Epinephrine – nonselective beta- and alpha-adrenergic agonism, leading to increased cardiac contractility, chronotropy...

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Podcast 852: Angioedema After Thrombolysis

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: What is thrombolysis? Thrombolysis is performed by administration of a medication that promotes the body’s natural ability to break up clots. These medications...

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Podcast 851: High-Dose Nitroglycerin in SCAPE

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: SCAPE (Sympathetic Crashing Acute Pulmonary Edema), formerly known as flash pulmonary edema, is a life-threatening condition due to a sudden sympathetic surge that...

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Podcast 850: Cardiac Arrest – Entertainment vs. Reality

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) is defined as when the heart suddenly stops beating. Immediate treatment for SCA includes Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation....

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Mental Health Monthly #15: Psychosis in the ED: Part I

Contributors: Andrew White MD & Travis Barlock MD In this episode of Mental Health Monthly, Dr. Andrew White, a practicing psychiatrist with an addiction medicine fellowship, and Dr. Travis...

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Podcast 849: Large Vessel Occlusions

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Large Vessel Occlusion (LVO) is a condition where a clot blocks one of the major blood vessels in the brain, leading to a...

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Podcast 848: Non-Traditional RSI

Contributor: Meghan Hurley, MD Educational Pearls:  Two main reasons to choose non-traditional RSI Anatomically challenging airway Physiologically difficult patients: hypoxia, metabolic acidosis, hemodynamic instability Ketamine may help patients remain...

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Podcast 847: ECMO CPR

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) has been attempted as an adjunct to CPR during cardiac arrest but few studies on outcomes exist  One prior...

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Podcast 846: Early Repolarization vs. Anterior STEMI

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: Early repolarization a benign EKG pattern that can mimic an anterior STEMI Can be seen in the anterior leads typically in young male...

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Podcast 845: Hyperkalemic Cardiac Arrest

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Hyperkalemia may cause cardiac arrest  Treatment of suspected hyperkalemic cardiac arrest begins with typical management of cardiac arrest including high-quality CPR, defibrillation if...

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Podcast 844: Dental Infections

Contributor: Meghan Hurley, MD Educational Pearls: Educational Pearls: Dental infections can be categorized into two main groups Infections of the gums Pericoronitis Tooth eruption leading to inflammation/irritation Can progress...

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Podcast 843: Commotio Cordis

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Commotio cordis is sudden ventricular fibrillation precipitated by direct impact to the chest  A national registry, US Commotio Cordis Registry, reports an average of...

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Podcast 842: “History of Wound Care”

Contributor: Chris Holmes, MD Educational Pearls: Through world history, there have been various interesting approaches to wound care Ancient Egyptians applied honey, lint, and grease which provided antimicrobial, absorptive...

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Podcast 841: History of Wound Care

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Through world history, there have been various interesting approaches to wound care Ancient Egyptians applied honey, lint, and grease which provided properties of...

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Podcast 840: Abnormal Pediatric Vitals at Discharge

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Pediatric patients frequently have vital signs considered abnormal for age at discharge Large multicenter study recently evaluated if pediatric patients discharged with abnormal...

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Podcast 839: Causes of Pancreatitis

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: The causes of pancreatitis can be remembered with the mnemonic: “GET SMASHED”  G: Gallstones (Most common cause of pancreatitis overall)  E: Ethanol (Alcohol...

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Podcast 838: Sternoclavicular Septic Arthritis

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Septic arthritis of the sternoclavicular joint is uncommon accounting for <1% of septic arthritis cases Immunosuppression and IV drug use increases the risk...

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Podcast 837: Snakebites

Contributor: Meghan Hurley, MD Educational Pearls: Venomous snakes in the United States include species from the family Elapidae and subfamily Crotalinae In prehospital setting, elevate the bitten extremity and...

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Podcast 836: Humming to get EJ

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Two conventional ways to aid in external jugular vein (EJ) catheter placement are Trendelenburg’s position and Valsalva’s maneuver by patient  One study compared...

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Podcast 835: Syncope Review

Contributor: Meghan Hurley, MD Educational Pearls: Syncope is defined as a loss of consciousness with an immediate return to baseline Differential is broad Cardiogenic Structural (aortic stenosis, HOCUM, etc.)...

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Podcast 834: Peds Buckle Fractures

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Torus (Buckle) fractures are a commonly encountered pediatric fracture pattern Typically presents as wrist pain secondary to a child falling on outstretched hand...

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Podcast 833: NS vs LR

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: Normal Saline (NS) contains 154 mEq of both Sodium (Na) and Chloride (Cl),  and has a pH of 5.5 Normal Na and Cl...

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CA Bridge Program and Health Disparities in the Opioid Epidemic

Happy Thanksgiving EMM listeners, Mason here wanting to extend a special thank you to all of you for tuning in to our show. Today we are featuring a special...

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Podcast 832: STD Checks

Educational Pearls: Most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) in North America: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) From the emergency department patients should be connected to follow-up care and educated on vaccine...

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Podcast 831: O2 Targets

Contributor: Aaron Lessen,MD Educational Pearls: Recent study looked at mechanically ventilated patients in ED and ICU to determine if O2 saturation level impacted patient outcomes 2541 patients randomized to...

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Podcast 830: Peripheral IV Flow Rates

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: Gauge and length of catheter are determinants of flow rate  Smaller gauges produce higher flow rate Longer catheters reduce flow rate   Common IV...

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Podcast 829: Monkeypox

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Monkeypox transmission is still occurring  in the United States Transmitted by contact to exposed lesion MSM are a high-risk group for monkeypox infection...

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Podcast 828: TXA Dosing Update

Contributor: Nick Hatch, MD Educational Pearls: In the setting of traumatic injury, tranexamic acid (TXA) is given to stabilize clots which minimizes bleeding and decreases risk of hemorrhagic shock  ...

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Podcast 827: Allergies in Peds

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Recent study evaluated if early exposure to an allergen impacted the rate of allergy development later in childhood Children were exposed to peanut,...

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Podcast 826: STEMI Equivalents

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: The presence of a STEMI has traditionally been used to determine if a patient with acute chest pain requires urgent cath lab management...

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Podcast 825: ALS vs PD Transport

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: In urban settings, it is becoming more common for police to transport critical patients from scene to hospital A 2022 multicenter observational study...

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Podcast 824: Catheter-Related Blood Infections

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: Catheter related blood infections were thought to be caused by skin flora seeding the catheter. Thus, significant effort is applied to sterility and...

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Podcast 823: Immediate Resuscitative Thoracotomy

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Immediate resuscitative thoracotomy can be performed in the ED to gain rapid access to the thoracic cavity in cases of traumatic cardiac arrest...

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Podcast 921: Meralgia Paresthetica

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Lateral Cutaneous Femoral Nerve Entrapment Syndrome, also known as Meralgia Paresthetica, results from entrapment of the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve, often as it...

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Podcast 821: EKGs in Syncope

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: An EKG should be obtained quickly after a syncopal event to identify possible life-threatening causes such as ischemia and arrhythmia WOBBLER is a...

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Podcast 820: Who Qualifies for Take-Home Naloxone

Contributor: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Home naloxone is traditionally given to those at high risk for opioid overdose such as those in the ED due to an opioid...

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Podcast 819: Indiscriminate Lactate Testing

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Elevated lactate levels can be a useful indicator of critical illness in patients who meet SIRS criteria        Lactate can also be elevated due...

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Podcast 818: Local Anesthetics and LAST

Contributor: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: There are two major groups of local anesthetics: Amide and Esther  To recall what group an anesthetic belongs to, use this memory trick:  ...

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Podcast 817: MI Risk during Elections

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: 2020 retrospective study with dat from two California hospitals compared rates of cardiovascular admissions in a five day period two weeks before and...

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Podcast 816: Ventilator Management in Asthmatics

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: The management of severe asthma or COPD exacerbation is complex, especially when the patient requires intubation/ventilation Asthma is an obstructive airway disease that...

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Podcast 815: Fluid Resuscitation in Pancreatitis

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Historically, pancreatitis has been treated with aggressive IV fluid rehydration. Recently published data shows this may not be appropriate. A randomized, controlled, multi-hospital...

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Podcast 814: Post-concussion Treatment

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Recent study looked at the impact of screen time on duration of post-concussive symptoms 125 patients aged 12-25 diagnosed with a concussion were...

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Podcast 813: Pulse Oximetry

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: Most oxygen in the body is bound to hemoglobin, forming oxyhemoglobin. Less than 1% of the oxygen in the body is dissolved in...

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Podcast 812: PO Medications

Contributor: Nick Tsipis, MD Educational Pearls: PO medications are less frequently used in the ED due to their longer onset of action        The position the patient is in when...

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Podcast 811: Ketamine for Pain

Contributor: Lessen, Aaron MD Educational Pearls: Ketamine can be given at 0.2-0.3 mg/kg as subdissociative doses for pain control in the ED Ketamine coadministered with Haldol may reduce agitation...

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Podcast 810: Tooth Replantation

Contributor: Jarod Scott, MD Educational Pearls: There is a 1-hour window for tooth replantation in ED Cold milk is often best transport media unless there is access to specialized...

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Podcast 809: Achilles Tendon Rupture

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Achilles tendon rupture usually presents in younger, healthy patients after a sports injury Patients typically present complaining of an abrupt onset ankle pain...

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Podcast 808: BVM and PEEP Valve

Contributor: Dylan Luyten, MD Educational Pearls: Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) is positive pressure within the lungs and maintained throughout the entire respiratory cycle. It is the pressure preventing...

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Podcast 807: Ring Removal Tricks

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: If a patient is in significant pain, a digital block can be helpful. Pain management alone may allow for manual ring removal.  Ring...

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Podcast 806: Normal ECGs

Contributor: Jarod Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Physicians are typically advised not to trust computer interpretation of ECGs  Retrospective study was done of computer interpreted normal ECGs to evaluate the...

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Podcast 805: Tunneled Peritoneal Catheter

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Patients with recurrent ascites may need frequent outpatient or emergency department paracentesis which can be time consuming and uncomfortable for patients.  Tunneled peritoneal...

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Podcast 804: Brugada Criteria for V Tach

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Tachycardia describes a heart rate of >120 beats per minute Wide Complex describes a QRS duration of >120 ms or 3 small boxes...

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Podcast 803: Sedation During Intubation

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Awareness with recall of paralysis can occur in intubated and ventilated patients receiving paralytic medications  Patients who suffer from this effect are at...

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Podcast 802: Intranasal Medication Administration for Pediatric Patients

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Intranasal medication administration is a convenient, quick, and relatively painless option for pediatric patients Often used as an initial medication to help control...

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Mental Health Monthly #14: Substance-Induced Psychosis (Part II)

In this second episode of a two-part mini-series, we feature Dr. Nadia Haddad, a Colorado psychiatrist, and Dr. Ricky Dhaliwal, an emergency medicine physician, as they discuss the various...

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Podcast 801: Push Dose Vasopressors

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: There are two common options for push-dose vasopressor: phenylephrine and epinephrine. Both have been studied in the setting of the OR, but are...

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Podcast 800: Mortality in Fevers

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: A recent study evaluated the association between the degree of fever and mortality rate in patients presenting to a set of Emergency Departments...

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Podcast 799: EKG Abnormalities in Renal Failure

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Patients in renal failure may have elevated serum potassium levels which can result in EKG changes.   EKG changes in the setting of hyperkalemia...

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Podcast 798: Digit Reimplantation

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Multiple factors affect if a digit can be reattached including: location of digit injury, mechanism of injury, duration since injury, preservation mechanism.  Recommended...

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Podcast 797: Vitamin C in Sepsis

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Prior, smaller studies showed intravenous Vitamin C given to patients with sepsis significantly improved patient mortality and additional outcomes.  A recently published, randomized...

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Podcast 796: Fluid Amounts in Septic Shock

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Septic shock management has traditionally endorsed rapid fluid resuscitation and the administration of vasopressors Current guidelines are for patients to initially receive a...

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Podcast 795: Lithium Toxicity

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Lithium remains a commonly used medication for treating bipolar disorder Lithium toxicity can be acute, acute-on-chronic, or chronic  Measuring blood lithium level Therapeutic...

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Podcast 794: Brain and Pain

Contributor: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Pain sensation is generated and modified by the brain Multiple case reports provide evidence that the degree of pain a patient experiences correlates...

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Podcast 793: Postintubation Sedation and Analgesia

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: When intubating a patient, it is important to consider what medications will be used for post-intubation sedation and analgesia The common non-benzodiazepine sedating...

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Podcast 793: Atypical Toxicology Overview in SI

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: There are several online products that have been marketed towards individuals with SI Sodium nitrite Food preservative that can cause methemoglobinemia when ingested...

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Podcast 792: Rectal Prolapse

Contributor: Jarod Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Rectal prolapse is an evagination of the rectal tissue through the anal opening Factors that weaken the pelvic floor muscles increase the risk...

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Podcast 791: Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (HHS) is less common than Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) but is associated with a mortality rate up to 10 times greater...

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