Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD
- Patients in renal failure may have elevated serum potassium levels which can result in EKG changes.
- EKG changes in the setting of hyperkalemia generally depend on the serum level. Mild elevation may cause peaked T waves. At higher serum levels there will be loss of P waves plus wide complex tachycardia. There can be progression to fatal arrhythmias.
- Treatment of acute hyperkalemia involves multiple mechanisms. Calcium gluconate stabilizes the cardiac membrane (of note, its duration of action is 1 hour). Insulin with Glucose and Bicarbonate both act to shift extracellular potassium into cells. Enhanced elimination of potassium is accomplished via Kayexalate or Lokelma. Definitive treatment for hyperkalemia is hemodialysis.
- The differential for wide complex non-tachycardic rhythm on EKG includes: left ventricular hypertrophy, left bundle branch block, pacemaker, electrolyte abnormalities including hyperkalemia.
Palmer BF, Clegg DJ. Diagnosis and treatment of hyperkalemia. Cleve Clin J Med. 2017;84(12):934-942. doi:10.3949/ccjm.84a.17056
Watanabe R. Hyperkalemia in chronic kidney disease. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2020;66Suppl 1(Suppl 1):s31-s36. Published 2020 Jan 13. doi:10.1590/1806-9282.66.S1.31
Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD
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