Toxicology Archives - The Emergency Medical Minute

Toxicology

Podcast 781: Foxglove, Dropsy, and Salvador Dali

Contributor: Chris Holmes, MD Educational Pearls: Foxglove plant contains the cardiac glycoside digoxin   Foxglove leaf potions were once used to treat Dropsy; a historic term for symptoms of heart failure  Digoxin, previously used for treating heart failure, works by increases heart contraction strength and slows heart rate Of note, the EKG of patient on digitalis…

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A Superior Cocktail

A SUPERIOR COCKTAIL Chief Complaint: Seizures HPI: 26-year-old male presents to the emergency department by EMS after he reportedly had 2 witnessed seizures by friends, who then called EMS. Described as tonic-clonic. EMS notes that he was postictal on arrival. Patient notes that he has not had seizures before in the past. He reports that…

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Podcast 764: Myth or Merit: Beta-Blockers for Cocaine Chest Pain

Contributor: Chris Holmes, MD Educational Pearls: Many are taught that patients with cocaine chest pain should not receive beta-blockers due to unopposed alpha agonism, but is this true? 363 consecutive admissions for chest pain with positive cocaine on urine toxicology were reviewed in a retrospective cohort study 60 patients in this cohort received a beta-blocker…

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Podcast 760: Why Fentanyl is the Worst

Contributor: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Fentanyl’s common administration route through pills has lowered the psychological barrier of using opioid compared to injecting and smoking heroin Fentanyl is showing up in all illicit drugs with documented cases even in marijuana Testing for fentanyl is difficult and requires a send out test because UA does not…

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Podcast 750: Take Home Naloxone

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Think about giving take home naloxone kits for anyone on long-term opioids as well as anyone with an opioid use disorder, those in opioid withdrawal, or those who recently overdosed on opioids Also consider for individuals with non-opioid substance use disorders For patients seen in the ED with an…

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Podcast 748: Botulism

Contributor: Nick Hatch, MD Educational Pearls: Botulism requires a prompt clinical diagnosis as lab results can take about 5 days to return Whale blubber, honey, home fermented foods, homemade wine (especially the wine made in prison), and improperly stored canned food can all contain the toxin The botulinum toxin is create by a Clostridium botulinum…

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Podcast 732: Organophosphate Toxicity

Educational Pearls: Organophosphates affect the cholinergic system by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase affecting muscarinic and nicotinic receptors Symptoms include lacrimation, salivation, bronchoconstriction, blurred vision, bradycardia, bronchorrhea, emesis, and diarrhea Initially, the patient should be decontaminated to prevent further organophosphate exposure Treatment consists of atropine every 5 minutes, 1-3 mg to start and doubling the dose each time…

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Podcast 724: Ivermectin Overdose

Contributor: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Ivermectin is a Nobel-Prize winning antiparasitic  used to treat filariasis and onchocerciasis Ivermectin is receiving press due to a scientific study examining ivermectin on COVID-19 viral replication in vitro, but the dosages needed for this effect were much higher than is safe for human use Ivermectin has since been…

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Mr. Freeze

mr. freeze Chief Complaint: Painful wounds on skin for months HPI: 32-year-old male with past medical history of alcohol use disorder and general anxiety disorder presents with painful skin wounds to the right thigh for approximately four months. He curbed his cravings for EtOH with inhalant use. He uses keyboard duster cans several times a…

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Podcast 682: Snake Bites

Contributor:  Gretchen Hinson, MD Educational Pearls: Pit vipers include cottonmouths, rattlesnakes, and copperheads All have folding long fangs, triangular face, and elliptical pupils About 5,000 snakebites per year reported to Poison Control Initially develop a local reaction (swelling, bruising, pain, bullae) Complications can include  25% of snake bites result in no envenomation (dry bites) 20%…

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