Pulmonary Archives - Page 3 of 5 - The Emergency Medical Minute

Pulmonary

Podcast # 474: Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

Author: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: The differential diagnosis for pedal edema includes issues in the heart, kidney, and liver Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is an important and common cause of right heart failure. Nighttime hypoventilation leads to pulmonary hypertension, causing right heart strain followed by right heart failure OHS criteria includes obesity, sleep disordered…

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Podcast # 461: Breath Stacking

Author: Gretchen Hinson, MD Educational Pearls: Breath stacking occurs when a patient is unable to expire fully before another inspiration In intubated/ventilated patients, this is because adequate time has not passed before exhalation Asthmatics are susceptible due to the prolonged expiratory phase Complications can include reduction in cardiac preload and cardiovascular collapse Pursed-lip breathing can…

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Podcast #445: Hunting for the endotracheal tube

Author: Michael Hunt, MD Educational Pearls: Bedside transtracheal ultrasound to confirm proper endotracheal intubation is simple and effective Review of 17 studies showed transtracheal ultrasound was was 98.7% sensitive and 97.1% specific Curvilinear probe may be preferable as it provides a larger field of view Editor’s Note: rather than explain what you’re looking for… just…

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Podcast #442: When a severe man cold isn’t

Author: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls:   CXR is 40-90% sensitive for detecting pneumonia when compared to CT Patients with a high degree of suspicion for pneumonia may still warrant treatment despite a negative CXR   References: Self WH, Courtney DM, McNaughton CD, Wunderink RG, Kline JA. High discordance of chest x-ray and computed tomography…

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Podcast #401: Foreign Body Aspiration

Author: Gretchen Hinson, MD Educational Pearls: Diagnosis can be difficult and often delayed Asymmetric breath sounds, choking, stridor may be present, but children also present asymptomatically Peak incidence around one to two years of age Hot dogs, nuts, popcorn – round and smooth objects are most commonly aspirated References: Green SS. Ingested and Aspirated Foreign…

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Podcast # 373: Legionnaires Disease

Author:  Gretchen Hinson, MD Educational Pearls: Legionnaires disease refers to a severe pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophilia and occurs typically at the extremes of age Associated gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea/vomiting/diarrhea) may be present Hyponatremia is a common laboratory finding Legionella urinary antigen can be a convenient test to identify the infection Treatment is with fluoroquinolones, macrolides…

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Podcast # 340: Drowning

Author: Chris Holmes, MD Educational Pearls: Epidemiology: 80% male, ages 1-4 at greatest risk, African-American > Caucasian. Freshwater and ocean water may have more bacteria than pool water. Salt water is hyperosmolar, which theoretically increases risk of pulmonary edema. Greatest physiologic insult is from hypoxia secondary to fluid aspiration or laryngeal spasm. Patient survival is…

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Podcast # 337: Airway Burn Inhalation

Author: John Winkler, MD Educational Pearls: Singed nasal hairs, soot around mouth, hoarse voice, drooling, and burns to head/face are signs suggestive of inhalation injury. Early intubation is critical for these patients as the airway changes rapidly. With inhalation injuries, the upper airway is burned while the lower airway is damaged by inhaled chemicals in…

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Podcast #325: Vaping and Pneumonia

Author: Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: Being exposed to E-cigarette vapor may increase risk of pneumonia. Recent study has shown e-cigarette vapor increases quantities of Platelet-activating-receptor factor in epithelial cells, which may aid pneumococcal bacteria in entering pneumocytes. References: Miyashita L, et al. (2018). E-cigarette vapour enhances pneumococcal adherence to airway epithelial cells. The European…

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Podcast #320: PE in Pregnancy

Author: Don Stader, M.D. Educational Pearls: Pulmonary embolism is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality. There is disagreement among different medical societies about the value of D-dimer as a screening modality. If you use it, consider the rational D-dimer approach whereby you add 250 to your cut-off for every trimester. A useful screening…

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