Pulmonary Archives - Page 3 of 5 - The Emergency Medical Minute

Pulmonary

Podcast #442: When a severe man cold isn’t

Author: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls:   CXR is 40-90% sensitive for detecting pneumonia when compared to CT Patients with a high degree of suspicion for pneumonia may still warrant treatment despite a negative CXR   References: Self WH, Courtney DM, McNaughton CD, Wunderink RG, Kline JA. High discordance of chest x-ray and computed tomography…

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Podcast #401: Foreign Body Aspiration

Author: Gretchen Hinson, MD Educational Pearls: Diagnosis can be difficult and often delayed Asymmetric breath sounds, choking, stridor may be present, but children also present asymptomatically Peak incidence around one to two years of age Hot dogs, nuts, popcorn – round and smooth objects are most commonly aspirated References: Green SS. Ingested and Aspirated Foreign…

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Podcast # 373: Legionnaires Disease

Author:  Gretchen Hinson, MD Educational Pearls: Legionnaires disease refers to a severe pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophilia and occurs typically at the extremes of age Associated gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea/vomiting/diarrhea) may be present Hyponatremia is a common laboratory finding Legionella urinary antigen can be a convenient test to identify the infection Treatment is with fluoroquinolones, macrolides…

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Podcast # 340: Drowning

Author: Chris Holmes, MD Educational Pearls: Epidemiology: 80% male, ages 1-4 at greatest risk, African-American > Caucasian. Freshwater and ocean water may have more bacteria than pool water. Salt water is hyperosmolar, which theoretically increases risk of pulmonary edema. Greatest physiologic insult is from hypoxia secondary to fluid aspiration or laryngeal spasm. Patient survival is…

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Podcast # 337: Airway Burn Inhalation

Author: John Winkler, MD Educational Pearls: Singed nasal hairs, soot around mouth, hoarse voice, drooling, and burns to head/face are signs suggestive of inhalation injury. Early intubation is critical for these patients as the airway changes rapidly. With inhalation injuries, the upper airway is burned while the lower airway is damaged by inhaled chemicals in…

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Podcast #325: Vaping and Pneumonia

Author: Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: Being exposed to E-cigarette vapor may increase risk of pneumonia. Recent study has shown e-cigarette vapor increases quantities of Platelet-activating-receptor factor in epithelial cells, which may aid pneumococcal bacteria in entering pneumocytes. References: Miyashita L, et al. (2018). E-cigarette vapour enhances pneumococcal adherence to airway epithelial cells. The European…

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Podcast #320: PE in Pregnancy

Author: Don Stader, M.D. Educational Pearls: Pulmonary embolism is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality. There is disagreement among different medical societies about the value of D-dimer as a screening modality. If you use it, consider the rational D-dimer approach whereby you add 250 to your cut-off for every trimester. A useful screening…

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Podcast #273: Bag Valve Masks

Author: Sam Killian, M.D. Educational Pearls Difficulty with bag valve mask (BVM) ventilation can be addressed using the MOANS mnemonic. Mask seal, Obesity/obstruction,  Age, No teeth, Sleep apnea. Often BVM difficulty can be addressed by an extra set of hands. References: https://www.aliem.com/2012/10/mnemonics-for-difficult-airway/

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Podcast #268: Poiseuille’s Law

Author:  Dave Rosenberg, M.D. Educational Pearls Poiseuille’s Law addresses the flow of a fluid through a tube. Many common ED presentations involve alterations in flow: asthma, MI, ischemic stroke, etc. According to the law, flow increases with the 4th power of the radius. That is to say, doubling the radius of the tube will increase…

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Podcast #262: Pertussis

Author: Julian Orenstein, M.D. Educational Pearls Colorado has a high population of unvaccinated children, and is at increased risk for pertussis outbreaks. The causative organism is Bordetella pertussis. It causes  causes respiratory epithelial necrosis leading to congestion of the bronchioles, leading to cough. The cough is unique – it is usually a series of expiratory…

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