Pulmonary Archives - The Emergency Medical Minute

Pulmonary

Podcast 890: Outdoor Cold Air for Croup

Contributor: Jared Scott MD Educational Pearls: Croup is a respiratory condition typically caused by a viral infection (e.g., parainfluenza). The disease is characterized by inflammation of the larynx and trachea, which often leads to a distinctive barking cough. A common treatment for croup is the powerful steroid dexamethasone, but it can take up to 30…

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Podcast 886: Cough in Kids

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: Croup Caused by: Parainfluenza, Adenovirus, RSV, Enterovirus (big right now) Age range: 6 months to 3 years Symptoms: Barky cough Inspiratory stridor (Severe = stidor at rest) Use the Westley Croup Score to gauge the severity Treatment: High flow, humidified, cool oxygen Dexamethasone 0.6 mg/kg oral, max 16mg Severe:…

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Podcast 877: Viral Respiratory Infections in Children

Contributor: Jared Scott MD Educational Pearls A recently published study assessed the burden of respiratory viruses in a longitudinal cohort of children from 0 to 2 years of age The children in the study received nasal swab PCR testing weekly to determine infectivity They were also monitored for symptoms via weekly text surveys The study…

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Episode 868: Airway Management in Obesity

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Why is airway management more difficult in obesity? Larger body habitus causes the chest to be above the head when the patient is lying supine, creating difficult angles for intubation. Reduced Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) causes these patients to deoxygenate much more quickly, reducing the amount of time during…

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Podcast 851: High-Dose Nitroglycerin in SCAPE

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: SCAPE (Sympathetic Crashing Acute Pulmonary Edema), formerly known as flash pulmonary edema, is a life-threatening condition due to a sudden sympathetic surge that leads to hypertensive heart failure, pulmonary edema, hypoxia, and respiratory distress. The initial treatment for SCAPE stabilization is BiPAP to assist with ventilation. Pharmacological treatment for…

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Podcast 831: O2 Targets

Contributor: Aaron Lessen,MD Educational Pearls: Recent study looked at mechanically ventilated patients in ED and ICU to determine if O2 saturation level impacted patient outcomes 2541 patients randomized to one of three target O2 saturation levels Low: 90% (Range: 88-92%) Intermediate: 94% (Range: 92-96%) High: 98% (Range: 96-100%) Outcome indicators Primary: Number of days alive…

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Podcast 816: Ventilator Management in Asthmatics

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: The management of severe asthma or COPD exacerbation is complex, especially when the patient requires intubation/ventilation Asthma is an obstructive airway disease that can cause air trapping and hyperinflation of the lungs To avoid worsening hyperinflation patients typically require slower respiratory rates, lower tidal volumes, and increased expiratory time…

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Podcast 813: Pulse Oximetry

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: Most oxygen in the body is bound to hemoglobin, forming oxyhemoglobin. Less than 1% of the oxygen in the body is dissolved in plasma.  Pulse Oximeters (Pulse Ox) function by emitting wavelengths of light from one side, and capturing the amount absorbed on the opposite side. A calculation determined…

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Podcast 808: BVM and PEEP Valve

Contributor: Dylan Luyten, MD Educational Pearls: Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) is positive pressure within the lungs and maintained throughout the entire respiratory cycle. It is the pressure preventing alveoli from collapsing at the end of exhalation.  When using a bag valve mask (BVM) to ventilate patients, always attach the PEEP valve to prevent intrathoracic…

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Podcast 735: End Tidal CO2 and BiPAP

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: End tidal CO2 is accurate to 1-4 mmHg in intubated patient but use with those on positive pressure ventilation like BiPAP is unclear Study looked at patients on BiPAP for COPD or CHF and found end tidal CO2 measurements were significantly underestimated when compared to VBG levels End tidal…

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