Pharmacology Archives - Page 2 of 15 - The Emergency Medical Minute

Pharmacology

Podcast 878: Opioids for Low Back and Neck Pain

Contributor: Jared Scott MD Educational Pearls: Should we use opioids to treat low back and neck pain? The OPAL Trial, published in The Lancet, in June 2023, attempted to answer this very question. Objective: Investigate the efficacy and safety of a short course of opioid analgesic (oxycodone-naloxone) for acute low back pain and neck pain….

Read More

Podcast 876: Sedation Pearls

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Common sedatives used in the Emergency Department and a few pearls for each. Propofol Type: Non-barbiturate sedative hypnotic agonizing GABA receptors. Benefit: Quick on and quick off (duration of action is approximately 2-7 minutes), helpful for suspected neurologic injury so the patient can wake up and be re-evaluated. Also…

Read More

Podcast 871: Increased Intracranial Pressure and the Cushing Reflex

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Education Pearls: The Cushing Reflex is a physiologic response to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) Cushing’s Triad: widened pulse pressure (systolic hypertension), bradycardia, and irregular respirations Increased ICP results from systolic hypertension, which causes a parasympathetic reflex to drop heart rate, leading to Cushing’s Triad. The Cushing Reflex is a sign of…

Read More

Podcast 866: Carbamazepine (Tegretol) Overdose

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: What is Carbamazepine (Tegretol)? Carbamazepine is an anti-epileptic drug with mood-stabilizing properties that is used to treat bipolar disorder, epilepsy, and neuropathic pain. It functions primarily by blocking sodium channels which can prevent repetitive action potential firing. What are the symptoms of an overdose? Common initial signs include diminished…

Read More

Podcast 865: Nausea Treatments – Droperidol vs Ondansetron RCT

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: A recent randomized controlled trial compared ondansetron 8 mg IV with droperidol 2.5 mg IV for the treatment of nausea & vomiting in the emergency department. Overall, droperidol and ondansetron had similar primary outcomes in acute nausea control Symptom improvement in 93% of patients receiving droperidol vs. 87% receiving…

Read More

Podcast 863: Treatments for Alcohol Use Disorder

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Patients with alcohol use disorder are frequently discharged from the ED without further resources Pharmacological treatments to reduce cravings in AUD exist Naltrexone Effective at reducing alcohol cravings and heavy drinking Gabapentin Reduces the percentage of heavy drinking days in AUD Patients being discharged from the ED should be…

Read More

Podcast 861: Alcohol Withdrawal and Delirium Tremens

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Alcohol binds the GABA receptor, which produces an inhibitory response, hence the “depressive” effects of ethanol beverages. Over time, alcohol downregulates the GABA receptors, leading to unopposed glutamate activity. Given that glutamate is excitatory, this can lead to seizures. Alcohol also suppresses REM sleep; in patients with chronically suppressed…

Read More

Podcast 855: QT Intervals

​​Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls The QT interval represents phases 2 and 3 of ventricular plateau and repolarization, respectively. As the QT interval lengthens, more sodium and calcium channels are available and susceptible to action potentials. Prolonged QT interval is more concerning in the setting of bradycardia. This scenario increases the likelihood of R…

Read More

Episode 854: Tranq (xylazine) with Heroin

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: What is Tranq? Tranq is the street name for xylazine, a sedative drug typically used in veterinary medicine. Xylazine has recently emerged as a recreational drug, often mixed with heroin or fentanyl. The mechanism of action of xylazine is similar to dexmedetomidine (Precedex), an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist. At…

Read More

Podcast 853: Critical Care Medications – Vasopressors

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Three categories of pressors: inopressors, pure vasoconstrictors, and inodilators Inopressors: Epinephrine – nonselective beta- and alpha-adrenergic agonism, leading to increased cardiac contractility, chronotropy (increased heart rate), and peripheral vasoconstriction. Dose 0.1mcg/kg/min. Levophed (norepinephrine) – more vasoconstriction peripherally than inotropy; useful in most cases of shock. Dose 0.1mcg/kg/min. Peripheral vasoconstrictors:…

Read More

 

Stay up to date by
joining our mailing list!