Pharmacology Archives - The Emergency Medical Minute

Pharmacology

Podcast 912: Narcan (Naloxone)

Contributor: Taylor Lynch, MD Educational Pearls: Opioid Epidemic- quick facts Drug overdoses, primarily driven by opioids, have become the leading cause of accidental death in the U.S. for individuals aged 18-45. In 2021, opioids were involved in nearly 75% of all drug overdose deaths The rise of synthetic opioids like fentanyl, which is much more…

Read More

Episode 911: Anticholinergic Toxicity

Contributor: Taylor Lynch MD Educational Pearls: Anticholinergics are found in many medications, including over-the-counter remedies Medications include: Diphenhydramine Tricyclic antidepressants like amitriptyline Atropine Antipsychotics like olanzapine Antispasmodics – dicyclomine Jimsonweed Muscaria mushrooms Mechanism of action involves competitive antagonism of the muscarinic receptor Symptomatic presentation is easily remembered via the mnemonic: Dry as a bone –…

Read More

Episode 908: Sympathomimetic Drugs

Contributor: Taylor Lynch MD Educational Pearls: Overview: Sympathomimetic drugs mimic the fight or flight response, affecting monoamines such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine Limited therapeutic use, often abused. Types: Amphetamines: Methamphetamine, Adderall, Ritalin, Vyvanse MDMA (Ecstasy) Cocaine (Both hydrochloride salt & free based crack cocaine) Theophylline (Asthma treatment) Ephedrine (For low blood pressure) BZP, Oxymetazoline…

Read More

Episode 907: Wide-Complex Tachycardia

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Wide-complex tachycardia is defined as a heart rate > 100 BPM with a QRS width > 120 milliseconds Wide-complex tachycardia of supraventricular origin is known as SVT with aberrancy Aberrancy is due to bundle branch blocks Mostly benign Treated with adenosine or diltiazem Wide-complex tachycardia of ventricular origin is…

Read More

Episode 905: Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) for Influenza

Contributor: Aaron Lessem MD Educational Pearls:  Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) is an antiviral medication used commonly to treat influenza Trials show that the medication reduces the duration of illness by less than 1 day (~16 hours in one systematic review) Benefit only occurs if taken within 48 hours of symptom onset Must be taken for 5 days…

Read More

Episode 903: Treating Precipitated Opioid Withdrawal

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Opioid overdoses that are reversed with naloxone (Narcan), a mu-opioid antagonist, can precipitate acute withdrawal in some patients Treatment of opioid use disorder with buprenorphine can also precipitate withdrawal Opioid withdrawal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and agitation Buprenorphine works as a partial agonist at mu-opioid receptors, which may…

Read More

Episode 901: Underdosing in Status Epilepticus

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Lorazepam (Ativan) is dosed at 0.1 mg/kg up to a maximum of 4 mg in status epilepticus Some ED protocols only give 2 mg initially The maximum recommended dose of levetiracetam (Keppra) is 60 mg/kg or 4.5 g In one retrospective study, only 50% of patients received the correct…

Read More

Episode 900: Ketamine Dosing

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Ketamine is an NMDA receptor antagonist with a wide variety of uses in the emergency department. To dose ketamine remember the numbers 0.3, 1, and 3. Pain dose For acute pain relief administer 0.3 mg/kg of ketamine IV over 10-20 minutes (max of 30 mg). Note: There is evidence…

Read More

Episode 899: Thrombolytic Contraindications

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Thrombolytic therapy (tPA or TNK) is often used in the ED for strokes Use of anticoagulants with INR > 1.7 or  PT >15 Warfarin and heparin increase INR Factor Xa inhibitors like apixaban (Eliquis) and rivaroxaban (Xarelto) increase prothrombin time Intracranial or intraspinal surgery in the last 3 months…

Read More

Podcast 884: Nerve Blocks

Contributor: Meghan Hurley MD Educational Pearls: What is a nerve block? A nerve block is the medical procedure of injecting anesthetic into the area around a nerve to block pain signals. They are typically done with ultrasound guidance. Are nerve blocks effective? Most of the information we have about nerve blocks is extrapolated from fascia…

Read More

 

Stay up to date by
joining our mailing list!