Pharmacology Archives - The Emergency Medical Minute

Pharmacology

Podcast 781: Foxglove, Dropsy, and Salvador Dali

Contributor: Chris Holmes, MD Educational Pearls: Foxglove plant contains the cardiac glycoside digoxin   Foxglove leaf potions were once used to treat Dropsy; a historic term for symptoms of heart failure  Digoxin, previously used for treating heart failure, works by increases heart contraction strength and slows heart rate Of note, the EKG of patient on digitalis…

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Podcast 770: Xylazine

Contributor: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Xylazine, referred to as tranq dope colloquially, is an FDA approved animal tranquilizer that is circulating in the illicit drug markets of the northeastern United states It is a powerful alpha-2 agonist, similar to clonidine, and patients with xylazine overdose may present similarly to opioid overdose Naloxone will not…

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Podcast 769: Pressors After Cardiac Arrest

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Hypotension after cardiac arrest often requires a vasopressor to improve blood pressure Recent observational study from France examined outcomes of patients who received either epinephrine or norepinephrine for post-resuscitation shock Norepinephrine had significantly better outcomes  Death from shock was 35% in the epinephrine group vs. 9% in the norepinephrine…

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Podcast 766: Truth about Tramadol

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Tramadol is often thought of as a mild-opiate to use for analgesia, but it is a more complicated drug Tramadol needs to be metabolized into an effective drug making it not pharmacologically reliable 3-10% of people cannot metabolize tramadol and it does not work Some others over-metabolize tramadol and…

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Podcast 765: Phenobarbital for Alcohol Withdrawal

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Retrospective cohort study looked at return rate of discharged patients after receiving either phenobarbital or benzodiazepines or both in the ED for treatment of alcohol withdrawal Patients who received benzodiazepines had a 25% chance of returning in 3 days versus a 10% chance of returning in 3 days for…

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Podcast 764: Myth or Merit: Beta-Blockers for Cocaine Chest Pain

Contributor: Chris Holmes, MD Educational Pearls: Many are taught that patients with cocaine chest pain should not receive beta-blockers due to unopposed alpha agonism, but is this true? 363 consecutive admissions for chest pain with positive cocaine on urine toxicology were reviewed in a retrospective cohort study 60 patients in this cohort received a beta-blocker…

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Podcast 749: PCC for Me?

Contributor: Nick Tsipis, MD Educational Pearls: Prothrombin complex concentrate (Kcentra)  and Vitamin K are used to reverse life-threatening bleeds in patients on warfarin (Coumadin) Factors II, VII, IX, and X are included in four-factor PCC PCC/Kcentra dosing is 500-2000 units based on INR and patient weight PROPER3 RCT was a non-inferiority trial done to evaluate…

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Podcast 745: Nitrous-Induced B12 Deficiency

Contributor: Alicia Oberle, MD Educational Pearls: Nitrous oxide (N2O) can cause a vitamin B12 deficiency in patients after regular use N2O is used in procedural sedation but also as a popular recreational drug  N2O binds and inactivate B12 in the body, therefore decreasing usable supply Lack of B12, which is essential for myelinating nerves, can…

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Podcast 713: Oral Ketamine

Contributor: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Those on chronic opioid therapy may have high tolerance to opioids and/or opioid hyperalgesia Ketamine is a good adjunct for pain control in patients on chronic opioid therapy To avoid the time constraints often required to push ketamine intravenously, it can be given orally: Ketamine IV 25-50 mg (~0.01-0.03…

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Podcast 712: Cephalosporin with a Penicillin Allergy

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Retrospective cohort study in the Kaiser system looked at over 4 million patients receiving antibiotics to determine the effect of penicillin allergy prompts in the EHR on antibiotic prescribing Half of the sites removed prompts stating penicillin allergy and half kept the prompts Patients with penicillin allergies who received…

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