Medical Minute Archives - Page 3 of 89 - The Emergency Medical Minute

Medical Minute

Episode 870: Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS)

Contributor: Meghan Hurley MD Educational Pearls: What is ATLS? Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) is a systematic and comprehensive approach to the evaluation and management of trauma patients It was developed by the American College of Surgeons (ACS) The key components include the Primary Survey (“ABCDE”), the Secondary Survey, Definitive Care, and Special Considerations What…

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Podcast 869: Shift Work

Contributor: Meghan Hurley MD Educational Pearls: Shift work is defined as anything that takes place outside of a 9-5 schedule, not exempting day-shift medical workers Various ill effects of shift work on overall health: Increased all-cause mortality Increased number of accidents Glucose metabolism dysregulation Increased BMI Fertility impacts for men and women Increased breast cancer…

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Episode 868: Airway Management in Obesity

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Why is airway management more difficult in obesity? Larger body habitus causes the chest to be above the head when the patient is lying supine, creating difficult angles for intubation. Reduced Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) causes these patients to deoxygenate much more quickly, reducing the amount of time during…

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Episode 867: Occult Scaphoid Fractures

Contributor: Nick Tsipis MD Educational Pearls: The scaphoid bone is the most proximal carpal bone just distal to the radius Fractures of the scaphoid bone are sometimes missed by plain X-rays A 2020 review found a 21.8% incidence of missed scaphoid fractures later diagnosed by advanced imaging modalities Only MRI has a sensitivity above 90%…

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Podcast 866: Carbamazepine (Tegretol) Overdose

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: What is Carbamazepine (Tegretol)? Carbamazepine is an anti-epileptic drug with mood-stabilizing properties that is used to treat bipolar disorder, epilepsy, and neuropathic pain. It functions primarily by blocking sodium channels which can prevent repetitive action potential firing. What are the symptoms of an overdose? Common initial signs include diminished…

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Podcast 865: Nausea Treatments – Droperidol vs Ondansetron RCT

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: A recent randomized controlled trial compared ondansetron 8 mg IV with droperidol 2.5 mg IV for the treatment of nausea & vomiting in the emergency department. Overall, droperidol and ondansetron had similar primary outcomes in acute nausea control Symptom improvement in 93% of patients receiving droperidol vs. 87% receiving…

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Podcast 864: Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) vs Venous Blood Gas (VBG)

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: What is measured in an ABG/VBG? Blood values for oxygen tension (pO2), carbon dioxide tension (pCO2), acidity (pH), oxyhemoglobin saturation, and bicarbonate (HCO3) in either arterial or venous blood Other tests can measure methemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, hemoglobin levels, base excess, and lactate What are they used for? Identification of ventilation/acid-base…

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Podcast 863: Treatments for Alcohol Use Disorder

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Patients with alcohol use disorder are frequently discharged from the ED without further resources Pharmacological treatments to reduce cravings in AUD exist Naltrexone Effective at reducing alcohol cravings and heavy drinking Gabapentin Reduces the percentage of heavy drinking days in AUD Patients being discharged from the ED should be…

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Podcast 862: How to Apply a Painful Stimulus

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: When might you need to apply a painful stimulus in a medical setting? The main reason is to assess the patient’s level of consciousness, such as when they are waking up from anesthesia or have potentially suffered a brain injury. It can be part of the Glasgow Coma Scale…

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Podcast 861: Alcohol Withdrawal and Delirium Tremens

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Alcohol binds the GABA receptor, which produces an inhibitory response, hence the “depressive” effects of ethanol beverages. Over time, alcohol downregulates the GABA receptors, leading to unopposed glutamate activity. Given that glutamate is excitatory, this can lead to seizures. Alcohol also suppresses REM sleep; in patients with chronically suppressed…

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