Medical Minute Archives - The Emergency Medical Minute

Medical Minute

Podcast 912: Narcan (Naloxone)

Contributor: Taylor Lynch, MD Educational Pearls: Opioid Epidemic- quick facts Drug overdoses, primarily driven by opioids, have become the leading cause of accidental death in the U.S. for individuals aged 18-45. In 2021, opioids were involved in nearly 75% of all drug overdose deaths The rise of synthetic opioids like fentanyl, which is much more…

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Episode 911: Anticholinergic Toxicity

Contributor: Taylor Lynch MD Educational Pearls: Anticholinergics are found in many medications, including over-the-counter remedies Medications include: Diphenhydramine Tricyclic antidepressants like amitriptyline Atropine Antipsychotics like olanzapine Antispasmodics – dicyclomine Jimsonweed Muscaria mushrooms Mechanism of action involves competitive antagonism of the muscarinic receptor Symptomatic presentation is easily remembered via the mnemonic: Dry as a bone –…

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Episode 910: Cellulitis Recovery Timeline

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: How fast does cellulitis recover? A recent prospective cohort study took a look at this question. The study included 300 adults with cellulitis (excluding those with peri-orbital cellulitis or abscesses) in two emergency departments in Queensland, Australia. They collected data from initial and follow-up surveys at 3, 7, and…

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Episode 909: Prehospital Blood Pressure Management in Suspected Stroke

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: A recent study assessed EMS treatment of high blood pressure in the field 2404 patients randomized to prehospital treatment (1205)  vs. usual care (1199) Included patients with prehospital BP greater than 150 mm Hg The treatment arm’s BP goal was 130-140 mm Hg The primary efficacy outcome was functional…

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Episode 908: Sympathomimetic Drugs

Contributor: Taylor Lynch MD Educational Pearls: Overview: Sympathomimetic drugs mimic the fight or flight response, affecting monoamines such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine Limited therapeutic use, often abused. Types: Amphetamines: Methamphetamine, Adderall, Ritalin, Vyvanse MDMA (Ecstasy) Cocaine (Both hydrochloride salt & free based crack cocaine) Theophylline (Asthma treatment) Ephedrine (For low blood pressure) BZP, Oxymetazoline…

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Episode 907: Wide-Complex Tachycardia

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Wide-complex tachycardia is defined as a heart rate > 100 BPM with a QRS width > 120 milliseconds Wide-complex tachycardia of supraventricular origin is known as SVT with aberrancy Aberrancy is due to bundle branch blocks Mostly benign Treated with adenosine or diltiazem Wide-complex tachycardia of ventricular origin is…

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Episode 906: Case Study of Hypernatremia

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: The case: A gentleman came in from a nursing home with symptoms concerning for sepsis. He was hypotensive, hypoxic, febrile, and mentally altered. His past medical history included previous strokes which had left him with deficits for which he required a feeding tube. Initial workup included some point of…

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Episode 905: Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) for Influenza

Contributor: Aaron Lessem MD Educational Pearls:  Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) is an antiviral medication used commonly to treat influenza Trials show that the medication reduces the duration of illness by less than 1 day (~16 hours in one systematic review) Benefit only occurs if taken within 48 hours of symptom onset Must be taken for 5 days…

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Episode 904: Cardiovascular Risks of Epinephrine

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Epinephrine is essential in the treatment of anaphylaxis, but is epinephrine dangerous from a cardiovascular perspective? A 2024 study in the Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians Open sought to answer this question. Methods: Retrospective observational study at a Tennessee quaternary care academic ED that analyzed ED…

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Episode 903: Treating Precipitated Opioid Withdrawal

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Opioid overdoses that are reversed with naloxone (Narcan), a mu-opioid antagonist, can precipitate acute withdrawal in some patients Treatment of opioid use disorder with buprenorphine can also precipitate withdrawal Opioid withdrawal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and agitation Buprenorphine works as a partial agonist at mu-opioid receptors, which may…

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