Medical Minute Archives - The Emergency Medical Minute

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Episode 898: Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as “broken heart syndrome,” is a temporary heart condition that can mimic the symptoms of a heart attack, including troponin elevations and mimic STEMI on ECG. The exact cause is not fully understood, but it is often triggered by severe emotional or physical stress. The…

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Episode 897: Adrenal Crisis

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal MD Educational Pearls: Primary adrenal insufficiency (most common risk factor for adrenal crises) An autoimmune condition commonly known as Addison’s Disease Defects in the cells of the adrenal glomerulosa and fasciculata result in deficient glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids Mineralocorticoid deficiency leads to hyponatremia and hypovolemia Lack of aldosterone downregulates Endothelial Sodium Channels (ENaCs)…

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Podcast 896: Cancer-Related Emergencies

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: Cancer-related emergencies can be sorted into a few buckets: Infection Cancer itself and the treatments (chemotherapy/radiation) can be immunosuppressive. Look out for conditions such as sepsis and neutropenic fever. Obstruction Cancer causes a hypercoagulable state. Look out for blood clots which can cause emergencies such as a pulmonary embolism,…

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Episode 895: Indications for Exogenous Albumin

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: There are three indications for IV albumin in the ED Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) Patients with SBP develop renal failure from volume depletion Albumin repletes volume stores and reduces renal impairment Albumin binds inflammatory cytokines and expands plasma volume Reduced all-cause mortality if IV albumin is given with antibiotics…

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Episode 894: DKA and HHS

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: What are DKA and HHS? DKA (Diabetic Ketoacidosis) and HHS (Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State) are both acute hyperglycemic states. DKA More common in type 1 diabetes. Triggered by decreased circulating insulin. The body needs energy but cannot use glucose because it can’t get it into the cells. This leads to…

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Episode 893: Home Treatments for Button Battery Ingestion

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Button batteries cause alkaline corrosion and erosion of the esophagus when swallowed Children swallow button batteries, which create a medical emergency as they can perforate the esophagus A recent study compared various home remedies as first-aid therapy for button battery ingestion Honey, jam, normal saline, Coca-Cola, orange juice, milk,…

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Episode 892: Tourniquets

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: What can you do to control bleeding in a penetrating wound? Apply direct pinpoint pressure on the wound as well as proximal to the wound. Build a compression dressing. How do you build a compression dressing? Think about building an upside-down pyramid with the gauze. Consider coagulation agents such…

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Episode 891: Hypothermia

Contributor: Taylor Lynch MD Educational Pearls Hypothermia is defined as a core body temperature less than 35 degrees Celsius or less than 95 degrees Fahrenheit Mild Hypothermia: 32-35 degrees Celsius Presentation: alert, shivering, tachycardic, and cold diuresis Management: Passive rewarming i.e. remove wet clothing and cover the patient with blankets or other insulation Moderate Hypothermia:…

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Podcast 890: Outdoor Cold Air for Croup

Contributor: Jared Scott MD Educational Pearls: Croup is a respiratory condition typically caused by a viral infection (e.g., parainfluenza). The disease is characterized by inflammation of the larynx and trachea, which often leads to a distinctive barking cough. A common treatment for croup is the powerful steroid dexamethasone, but it can take up to 30…

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Podcast 889: Blood Pressure Cuff Size

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Does the size of a blood pressure (BP) cuff matter? A recent randomized crossover trial revealed that, indeed, cuff size can affect blood pressure readings Design 195 adults with varying mid-upper arm circumferences were randomized to the order of BP cuff application: Appropriate Too small Too large Individuals had…

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