General Archives - Page 2 of 6 - The Emergency Medical Minute

General

Podcast 659: Racial Bias in Pulse Oximetry

Contributor:  Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Study in NEJM looked at occult hypoxemia, when oxygen saturation reads at >92% when the actual saturation is <88% Rate of occult hypoxemia was 3 times higher in those who identified as black (12% vs 4%) Keep this disparity in mind when providing care to patients of all backgrounds…

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Podcast 631: UK COVID-19 Variant

Contributor: Gretchen Hinson, MD Educational Pearls: Viruses mutate frequently and a new variant of COVID has been found in the United Kingdom. Mutations typically occur due to transcription errors during virus replication leading to slight changes in the virus which can alter its virulence, and this UK mutation has shown more infectivity. The UK variant…

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Podcast 623: Acute Mountain Sickness

Contributor: Tom Seibert, MD Educational Pearls: Acute Mountain sickness (AMS) can cause headache along with fatigue, nausea, vomiting, insomnia Typically occurs above 6500 feet (not 65,000) in elevation   Acclimation to altitude can help prevent symptoms if not treated, AMS can advance to severe illness involving cerebral or pulmonary edema. Mild symptoms can be managed with…

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Podcast 617: Masks and Understanding Data

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Recent study looked at if mask wearing protects the mask wearer from infection This group found 1.8% of mask wearers got COVID while 2.1% of non-mask wearers became infected, which was not statistically significant This was not statistically significant and has been used to justify not wearing masks by…

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Podcast 612: Origin of Vaccines

Contributor: Dave Rosenberg, MD Educational Pearls: The potential of vaccinations was first observed in the late 1600s when Jenner observed people who had cowpox never contracted smallpox, so he inoculated people with cowpox to see if it prevented smallpox, and… Years later, Louis Pasteur inoculated chickens with cholera after his assistant accidently created the first…

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Podcast 611: Flu Season in the time of COVID

Contributor: Chris Holmes, MD Educational Pearls: During a typical flu season positive rates of flu tests run around ~20% Surveillance data from Australia, South Africa, and Chile showed remarkably low rates of flu during their typical high season – only 51 total cases were reported This overlapped with COVID, meaning extensive social distancing and other…

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Podcast 609: Kratom

Contributor: Nick Hatch, MD Educational Pearls: Kratom is derived from the evergreen tree sharing the same name, found in Southeast Asia Kratom is legal is most regions Adverse effects of this substance are increasing in prevalence as its use becomes more widespread At lower doses kratom has a stimulatory effect Higher doses of kratom can…

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Podcast 608: Another Elevated Lactate?

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Lactate is a byproduct of anaerobic metabolism or tissue hypoperfusion Though typically associated with severe sepsis, hyperlactatemia can be caused by vigorous exercise, seizures, liver failure, asthma exacerbations, albuterol, metformin, antiretroviral drugs, and propofol Liver failure can lead to an inability to clear lactate, or convert it back to…

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Podcast 607: Is Pain the Enemy?

Contributor: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Pain is ubiquitous in the emergency department but it is not the enemy – suffering is Nociception is the ability to feel noxious stimuli which usually causes a reaction, like pulling a limb away when you feel something painful. Nociception is really a brainstem reflex. Pain is nociception plus…

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Podcast 597: Weather Can be a Headache

  Contributor: Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: One study found that patients presented with headaches more frequently when there was high temperatures and low humidity, while higher humidity is correlated to lower incidence of headache. Moon phases had no effect on headache frequency. A Canadian study looking at over 100,000 ED visits for headaches found…

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