Gastroenterology Archives - The Emergency Medical Minute

Gastroenterology

Podcast 708: Diagnostic Paracentesis

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Paracentesis is a procedure where fluid is removed from the peritoneal cavity by needle Indications for paracentesis include: large volume paracentesis (5-6L), diagnosis of transudative or exudative ascites, evaluation for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) Infection of ascitic fluid is more likely in transudative processes due to the increased frequency…

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Podcast 707: Sigmoid Volvulus

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Sigmoid volvulus occurs when the sigmoid colon twists 180 to 360 degrees 10% of intestinal obstructions in the US; 50-70% of intestinal obstructions worldwide More common in elderly patients with chronic constipation Eventually may lead to bowel perforation, a surgical emergency Treatment is sigmoidoscopy or sigmoid colectomy References Lieske…

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Podcast 683: Zofran vs. Haldol for Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome

Contributor:  Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Around 30 patients with cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) randomized treatment in three arms with 8mg Zofran, Haldol 0.05 mg/kg, and Haldol 0.1 mg/kg Haldol arms performed better on all measures compared to Zofran Extrapyramidal symptoms were significantly higher in the Haldol group than Zofran, especially the high-dose Haldol group…

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Podcast 681: Internal Hernias

Contributor:  Adam Barkin, MD Educational Pearls: Internal hernias, when bowel herniates through iatrogenic or congenital defect in mesentery, represent 1-6% of all small bowel obstructions Mortality of strangulated internal hernias is over 50% due to bowel necrosis and sepsis Intermittent symptoms presenting with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, abdominal distension Increased risk in patients with gastric…

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The Invisible Bleed

the invisible bleed Chief Complaint: Hematemesis HPI: 43-year-old woman with a history of gastroparesis and seizures suddenly vomited blood about 4 hours prior to arrival to the ED. She has never vomited blood like this before. She describes copious hematemesis with clots. She has a history of esophagitis with mild hematemesis several years in the…

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Podcast 676: Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis

Contributor:  Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: Patients with cirrhosis and ascites are frequently evaluated for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, an infection of the ascites fluid that is not from a surgically treated source Fever, abdominal pain, and altered mental status should all raise clinical suspicion in a patient with ascites Fluid from paracentesis may show increased…

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Podcast 653: Nitroglycerin Disimpaction

Contributor:  Ricky Dhaliwal, MD, JD Educational Pearls: Glucagon administered intravenously has a high rate of adverse events (nausea/vomiting) with very weak evidence NItroglycerin too has very limited evidence but a much better adverse event profile Mix 0.4 mg (1 sublingual tablet) nitro in 10 mL of water and administer orally Nothing beats upper endoscopy for…

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Podcast 647: INR and Liver Failure

Contributor:  Erik Verzemnieks, MD Educational Pearls: INR measures the clotting cascade including factors II, VII, IX, and X Coumadin most commonly elevates the INR, and it is used to monitor the anticoagulant’s effectiveness Liver failure can cause a similar elevation in the INR due to lack of synthesis of factors II, VII, IX, X An…

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Podcast 645: Necrotizing Enterocolitis and More

Contributor:  Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) Presents in the first few days of life (often in the NICU) to 3 weeks old Risk factors include prematurity, excess feeding, neonatal sepsis Pneumatosis Intestinalisis on abdominal xray caused by bacterial translocation into the bowel wall Treated with NG tube, bowel rest and surgical resection…

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Podcast 643: Convulsions with Gastroenteritis

Contributor:  Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Differential Diagnosis: non-accidental trauma, febrile seizure, meningitis, hyponatremia, epilepsy Convulsions with gastroenteritis is a known entity to cause seizures in infancy Predominantly occurs in ages 6 months to 3 years Occur with diarrheal episodes No electrolyte abnormalities associated with the seizure nor severe dehydration Seizures tend to come in…

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