Gastroenterology Archives - The Emergency Medical Minute

Gastroenterology

Episode 902: Liver Failure and Cirrhosis

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: How do you differentiate between compensated and decompensated cirrhosis? Use the acronym VIBE to look for signs of being decompensated. V-Volume Cirrhosis can cause volume overload through a variety of mechanisms such as by increasing pressure in the portal vein system and the decreased production of albumin. Look for…

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Episode 895: Indications for Exogenous Albumin

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: There are three indications for IV albumin in the ED Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) Patients with SBP develop renal failure from volume depletion Albumin repletes volume stores and reduces renal impairment Albumin binds inflammatory cytokines and expands plasma volume Reduced all-cause mortality if IV albumin is given with antibiotics…

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Episode 893: Home Treatments for Button Battery Ingestion

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Button batteries cause alkaline corrosion and erosion of the esophagus when swallowed Children swallow button batteries, which create a medical emergency as they can perforate the esophagus A recent study compared various home remedies as first-aid therapy for button battery ingestion Honey, jam, normal saline, Coca-Cola, orange juice, milk,…

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Podcast 865: Nausea Treatments – Droperidol vs Ondansetron RCT

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: A recent randomized controlled trial compared ondansetron 8 mg IV with droperidol 2.5 mg IV for the treatment of nausea & vomiting in the emergency department. Overall, droperidol and ondansetron had similar primary outcomes in acute nausea control Symptom improvement in 93% of patients receiving droperidol vs. 87% receiving…

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Podcast 839: Causes of Pancreatitis

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: The causes of pancreatitis can be remembered with the mnemonic: “GET SMASHED”  G: Gallstones (Most common cause of pancreatitis overall)  E: Ethanol (Alcohol consumption is the most common cause of chronic pancreatitis) T: Trauma  S: Steroids M: Malignancy A: Autoimmune  S: Scorpion Sting H: Hypertryglyceridemia  E: ERCP D: Drugs…

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Podcast 815: Fluid Resuscitation in Pancreatitis

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Historically, pancreatitis has been treated with aggressive IV fluid rehydration. Recently published data shows this may not be appropriate. A randomized, controlled, multi-hospital trial evaluated outcomes for patients with acute pancreatitis receiving lactated Ringer’s solution    Aggressive fluid resuscitation group received 20ml/kg bolus + 3ml/hour  Moderate fluid resuscitation groups received…

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Podcast 805: Tunneled Peritoneal Catheter

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Patients with recurrent ascites may need frequent outpatient or emergency department paracentesis which can be time consuming and uncomfortable for patients.  Tunneled peritoneal catheters are a permanent alternative therapy which allows fluid drainage at home by patient or caregiver.  There has been theoretical concern that long term placement of…

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Podcast 792: Rectal Prolapse

Contributor: Jarod Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Rectal prolapse is an evagination of the rectal tissue through the anal opening Factors that weaken the pelvic floor muscles increase the risk of rectal prolapse These include age > 40, female, multiple pregnancies, constipation, diarrhea, cystic fibrosis, prior pelvic floor surgeries, or other pelvic floor abnormalities Noninvasive treatment…

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Tastes so good, hurts so bad

tastes so good, hurts so bad Chief Complaint: Esophageal Foreign Body HPI: 31-year-old male presents to emergency department with reports of an esophageal foreign body. He states that he was eating chicken and had a large piece of chicken get stuck in his chest. He is vomiting up liquid after attempts of swallowing water, not…

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Podcast 767: Transaminitis and Rhabdomyolysis

 Contributor: Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: Transaminitis refers to the elevation of transaminases, enzymes of the liver (AST and ALT) Elevation of ALT is relatively specific to the liver, but AST is found in more organs than the liver including the muscle If AST is significantly greater than ALT, consider a musculoskeletal origin such…

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