Endocrine / Metabolic Archives - Page 2 of 4 - The Emergency Medical Minute

Endocrine / Metabolic

Podcast # 469: Go PO

Author: Dave Rosenberg, MD Educational Pearls: Nothing by mouth (NPO) status routinely used before surgery to reduce the theoretical risk of aspiration However, surgery poses a large physiological stress. Calories and fluid are needed to overcome stresses like these Patients who drank 1/2 strength Gatorade up to 2 hours before surgery did better than those…

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Podcast # 465: As easy and 1, 2, 10 – Capillary Refill and Sepsis

Author: Ryan Circh, MD Educational Pearls: The 2019 ANDROMEDA-SHOCK trial compared using serum lactates to capillary refill assessment in septic shock patients to guide resuscitation Capillary refill time was standardized (this is not straightforward): A glass microscope slide was pressed on the ventral side of the right index finger Pressure was increased until the skin…

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Podcast # 456 Hypoglycemia: Not feeling so sweet

Author: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls:   Beta-blockers can mask the effects of hypoglycemia Prolonged/refractory hypoglycemia should raise a suspicion for sulfonylurea (or other oral hypoglycemic) overdose Interventions to reverse hypoglycemia include feeding the patient, IV dextrose, glucagon Octreotide can be used as an antidote with sulfonylurea ingestion References Alsahli M, Gerich JE. Hypoglycemia. Endocrinol…

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Podcast # 428: Severe Hypothyroidism

Author: Gretchen Hinson, MD Educational Pearls: Clinical manifestations of severe hypothyroidism may include: Pale, cool, diaphoretic skin Myxedema is the non-pitting edema seen in hypothyroidism Hypothermia, heart failure, hypotension and shock Shortness of breath Cholestasis, constipation Encephalopathy and coma   Mortality is 30-50% Specific treatment includes thyroid hormone (T3, T4, or both) and glucocorticoids (for…

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Podcast # 421: Sweet DKA Pearls

Author: Gretchen Hinson, MD Educational Pearls: Diabetic ketoacidosis patients are subject to electrolyte derangements Potassium should be monitored closely: K < 3.3 = Do not give insulin and replete K first 3.3 < K < 5.3 = give 20-30mEq K for each L of IVF K > 5.3 = delay potassium replacement Adult patients are…

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Podcast # 417: Water Balance

Author: Katie Sprinkle, MD Educational Pearls: Hyponatremia results when patients over hydrate and dilute their sodium with too much free water Symptoms of hyponatremia can mimic symptoms of dehydration (dizziness,  lightheadedness, general malaise) With severe hyponatremia patients can progress to seizure, coma, and death Hypernatremia results from dehydration and is more common References: Bennett BL,…

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Podcast # 371: EKG changes of Hyperkalemia

Author:  Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: EKG changes do not necessarily correlate to degree of hyperkalemia Traditional progression through peaked T-waves, flattened p-waves, QRS widening, and then sine-waves before asystole References Mattu A, Brady WJ, Robinson DA. Electrocardiographic manifestations of hyperkalemia. Am J Emerg Med. 2000;18:721–729.

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Podcast # 346: Pediatric DKA

Author: Chris Holmes, MD Educational Pearls: There is a risk of cerebral edema in pediatrics with DKA if over resuscitated. Recent study comparing normal saline vs. ½ normal saline showed no difference in rates of cerebral edema regardless of rate of infusion. Recommend sticking with a fluid resuscitation protocol you are familiar with (i.e., 2…

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Podcast #310: Bicarb in DKA

Author: Gretchen Hinson, M.D. Educational Pearls: Controversial topic. Pathophysiology – acidosis leads to an extracellular potassium shift. Patients in DKA will be intracellularly potassium deplete, but will have a falsely normal/elevated serum potassium. 3 risk of giving bicarb in DKA – alkalosis will drive potassium intracellularly but can overshoot (hypokalemia) and  increase risk of arrhythmias;…

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Podcast #292: Hypercalcemia

Author: John Winkler, M.D.  Educational Pearls Normally, the parathyroid is the master regulator of serum Ca levels. It secretes PTH, which stimulates calcium uptake from the bone and gut. Causes of hypercalcemia include: parathyroid tumor, lytic bone lesions (multiple myeloma), breast cancer, renal injury, and some lung cancers. Hypercalcemia can lead to poor bone quality…

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