Endocrine / Metabolic Archives - The Emergency Medical Minute

Endocrine / Metabolic

Episode 897: Adrenal Crisis

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal MD Educational Pearls: Primary adrenal insufficiency (most common risk factor for adrenal crises) An autoimmune condition commonly known as Addison’s Disease Defects in the cells of the adrenal glomerulosa and fasciculata result in deficient glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids Mineralocorticoid deficiency leads to hyponatremia and hypovolemia Lack of aldosterone downregulates Endothelial Sodium Channels (ENaCs)…

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Podcast 896: Cancer-Related Emergencies

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: Cancer-related emergencies can be sorted into a few buckets: Infection Cancer itself and the treatments (chemotherapy/radiation) can be immunosuppressive. Look out for conditions such as sepsis and neutropenic fever. Obstruction Cancer causes a hypercoagulable state. Look out for blood clots which can cause emergencies such as a pulmonary embolism,…

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Episode 894: DKA and HHS

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: What are DKA and HHS? DKA (Diabetic Ketoacidosis) and HHS (Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State) are both acute hyperglycemic states. DKA More common in type 1 diabetes. Triggered by decreased circulating insulin. The body needs energy but cannot use glucose because it can’t get it into the cells. This leads to…

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Podcast 860: Thyrotoxicosis

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Clinical picture: A patient comes in with altered mental status, tachycardia, fever, elevated T4, and low TSH. What’s the diagnosis?… Thyrotoxicosis secondary to Graves’ Disease. How do you treat thyrotoxicosis? First, give a beta-blocker such as propranolol. This suppresses the elevated adrenergic activity. Second, give a thionamide such as…

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Podcast 791: Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (HHS) is less common than Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) but is associated with a mortality rate up to 10 times greater than that seen in DKA Typically seen in elderly patients with severely elevated blood glucose levels (>1000 mg/dL) and an increased plasma osmolality Unlike in DKA,…

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The Slow Roller

the slow roller Chief Complaint: Lethargy HPI: 56-year-old male who uses a wheelchair at baseline arrives via EMS from home with complaints of lethargy. EMS was originally contacted because occupants of the patient’s home thought his blood glucose level was low. The patient had slowed respirations and was bradycardic upon EMS arrival. His blood glucose…

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Podcast 759: Hyperkalemia and Myth of Kayexalate

Contributor: Nick Tsipis, MD Educational Pearls: Acute hyperkalemia is characterized as serum K of 5.4 or higher in non-hemolyzed samples Hyperkalemia is commonly associated with end stage renal disease, acute kidney injury or acute renal failure Cardiac dysrhythmias are the primary concern with hyperkalemia, common EKG changes (and approximate serum levels) can include: Peaked T…

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Podcast 711: Insulin Pumps

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Insulin pumps provide a continuous infusion of fast-acting insulin using a basal rate and bolus prior to meals Some connect to a continuous glucometer but often blood glucose needs to be checked manually Hypoglycemia is rarely due to a malfunctioning pump – there is usually an another external factor…

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Podcast 667: Lactated Ringers for DKA

Contributor:  Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Recent study looked at whether lactated ringers might be a better choice for fluid resuscitation in patients with DKA compared to normal saline Normal saline can cause a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis Time to resolution of acidosis was 4 hours less with lactated ringers compared to normal saline Time on…

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Podcast 559: Metabolic Acidosis

Contributor: Dylan Luyten, MD Educational Pearls Acidosis can be caused by a respiratory, metabolic, or mixed source A respiratory acidosis will have a low serum pH and elevated bicarbonate if it’s chronic, but most importantly end tidal CO2 or arterial CO2 will be high.   With a metabolic acidosis we expect to see a low serum…

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