Cardiovascular Archives - Page 2 of 12 - The Emergency Medical Minute

Cardiovascular

Podcast 628: ST Elevation

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: STEMI criteria is not just 1mm elevation in contiguous leads 1.5 mm in V2-V3 for women 2.0 mm in V2-V3 for men 2.5 mm in V2-V3 for men under 40 Inferior MI typically have ST elevation in leads II, III and aVF Usually inferior MI’s show reciprocal changes (ST…

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Podcast 605: Acute Limb Ischemia

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Classically presents with the 6Ps: Pain, pallor, paresthesia, pulseless, poikilothermia (cold), and paralysis Acute limb ischemia occurs by embolic or thrombotic causes Thrombotic causes are now more common due to aging populations and advancements in vascular surgery like stents which can be a nidus for thrombosis. Sudden onset of…

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Podcast 595: Peripheral Vasopressors

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Traditional teaching has shied away from using vasopressors through peripheral IVs Tissue necrosis from extravasation is cited as a risk of use of vasopressors through a peripheral site However, risk of extravasation is low (2-4%) and even more rarely results in significant complications Using an  IV that is more…

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Podcast 592:  Rapid Antihypertensives

Contributor: Ramnik Dhaliwal, MD, JD Educational Pearls: Nitrates Nitroprusside: becomes effective in under a minute, and becomes ineffective 10 minutes after stopping it.  Nitroprusside can metabolize into cyanide leading to toxicity, however this is rare. Nitroglycerin: predominately causes vasodilation but some arterial dilation as well; preferred agent in patients with volume overload/CHF Adrenergic Blocking Agents…

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Podcast 588: Esmolol for Refractory Ventricular Fibrillation

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD, JD Educational Pearls: Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) is a potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmia; Refractory VF even more so Epinephrine stimulates alpha and beta receptors which increase sympathetic tone, thereby increasing cardiac oxygen demand and myocardial calcium levels which can cause new arrhythmias, particularly a problem during resuscitation Esmolol (or any beta blocker)…

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Podcast 568: Shock ‘em! 

Contributor: John Winkler, MD Educational Pearls: Unstable ventricular tachycardia (VT) typically manifests with syncope, shortness of breath, diaphoresis and/or chest pain with hemodynamic instability Electrical cardioversion of unstable ventricular tachycardia is first line treatment Starting with a higher energy level (or just using the maximum) when performing cardioversion may set you up for better success…

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Podcast 567: Mechanical CPR….Not So Fast

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Mechanical CPR (machine assisted compression devices) remains a hot topic of debate in emergency medicine Machine assisted CPR has been advocated to provide more consistent compressions in cardiac arrest and free up staff for other tasks. However, multiple studies have shown mechanical CPR provides no significant survival benefit yet…

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Podcast 564:  Cardiac Ischemia Management Update

Contributor: Nick Tsipis, MD Educational Pearls: Recent randomized controlled trial compared early intervention (PCI/CABG) to medical management for those diagnosed with moderate to severe cardiac ischemia on stress testing Primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or resuscitated cardiac arrest Secondary outcome was…

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TCA Overdose

tca OVERDOSE DISCUSSION: Background: Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) were introduced in the 1950s to treat depression, but are now more commonly used as migraine prophylaxis and in the treatment of fibromyalgia, neuropathic pain, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The shift away from using TCAs for depression was in large part due to the drug’s narrow therapeutic index, which…

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Podcast 552: PE Management and Risk Stratification

Contributor: Dylan Luyten, MD Educational Pearls: After you diagnose a pulmonary embolism (PE) via CT or VQ scan, we need to categorize the PE as massive, sub-massive, or just PE to dictate treatment.   Massive PE: shock with hypotension due to an embolism, and the treatment of choice is thrombolysis with IV tPA with anticoagulation after…

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