Cardiovascular Archives - The Emergency Medical Minute

Cardiovascular

Podcast 680: Coronary Artery Dissection

Contributor:  Adam Barkin, MD Educational Pearls: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is the most common cause of acute MI in women under 50 years old Risk factors include fibromuscular dysplasia, extreme exercise, stress, pregnancy, and recent birth Diagnosed in cath lab but medically managed and usually do not get a stent Treated with dual antiplatelet…

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Podcast 679: ECMO for Refractory VFib

Contributor:  Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Refractory ventricular fibrillation, defined as 3 defibrillation shocks without resolution, was studied via RCT looking to compare ECMO with cardiac cath vs. typical resuscitation After 30 patients (15 each arm), the trial was stopped because such a significant benefit seen in the ECMO arm 6 patients survived and 3…

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Podcast 669: VTach Storm

Contributor:  Gretchen Hinson, MD Educational Pearls: Three episodes of ventricular tachycardia within 24 hours or two episodes back-to-back Treat with IV amiodarone and IV beta-blockers initially as well as IV lidocaine Correct underlying causes:  IV magnesium for QT prolongation Replete potassium in hypokalemia Urgent revascularization in ischemia For refractory vtach, urgent radiofrequency ablation or stellate…

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Podcast 649: Normal Triage EKGs

Contributor:  Samuel Killian, MD Educational Pearls: Anecdotally, when the computer reads a triage EKG as normal it is most often normal One study tested this theory by examining 855 computer-read EKGS (222 of which were read as normal) Two cardiologists reviewed these 222 normal EKGs and only found 13 EKGs that were slightly abnormal with…

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Podcast 642: Vasopressors

  Contributor:  Nick Tsipis, MD Educational Pearls: Epinephrine: alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-1, and beta 2 agonist – used in cardiac arrest with positive effects on ROSC in prehospital and peri-hopsital setting Norepinephrine: alpha-1 and beta-1 agonist – used in septic shock to increase cardiac output and peripheral vasoconstriction Phenylephrine: alpha-1 adrenergic agonist – used in spinal/neurogenic…

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Podcast 641: Leadless Intracardiac Pacemaker

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Small capsule pacemaker (2.5 cm, 1 ml volume) resides in the heart without any associated wires or leads like a traditional pacemaker The new version has a 6 year battery life, after which it can be deactivated and a traditional pacemaker put in place Cost is around 2-4 times…

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Podcast 636: May-Thurner Syndrome

Contributor: Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: iliac vein compression syndrome is also called May-Thurner Syndrome The left leg more frequently develops deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in part because about 1/4 of the population has May-Thurner May-Thurner syndrome anatomic variant results in a right iliac artery compresses the left iliac vein against the spine, which can…

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Podcast 635: Wide Complex Tachycardias

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Two main differentials for wide complex tachycardia (WCT) include ventricular tachycardia (most common) and supraventricular tachycardia with aberrancy Brugada syndrome and Wolff-Parkinson White are potential causes Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is a rare congenital cause of WCT that should be considered in younger patients presenting with WCT References B…

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Podcast 630: Evolution of an STEMI

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Hyperacute T waves can occur immediately and typical last less than an hour Hyperacute T waves are typically broader than peaked T-waves, which are associated with hyperkalemia ST elevation which usually starts within an hour of the inciting event and can last up to a few days, and often…

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Podcast 629: Inferior STEMI

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: EKGs look at different angles, or vectors, of the heart’s electrical conduction as it travels through the heart. Knowing how to read these vectors is essential in diagnosing locations of cardiac pathologies  Leads II, III, and aVF follow an inferior path, so ST elevation in those leads indicates inferior…

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