Cardiovascular Archives - The Emergency Medical Minute

Cardiovascular

Episode 908: Sympathomimetic Drugs

Contributor: Taylor Lynch MD Educational Pearls: Overview: Sympathomimetic drugs mimic the fight or flight response, affecting monoamines such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine Limited therapeutic use, often abused. Types: Amphetamines: Methamphetamine, Adderall, Ritalin, Vyvanse MDMA (Ecstasy) Cocaine (Both hydrochloride salt & free based crack cocaine) Theophylline (Asthma treatment) Ephedrine (For low blood pressure) BZP, Oxymetazoline…

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Episode 907: Wide-Complex Tachycardia

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Wide-complex tachycardia is defined as a heart rate > 100 BPM with a QRS width > 120 milliseconds Wide-complex tachycardia of supraventricular origin is known as SVT with aberrancy Aberrancy is due to bundle branch blocks Mostly benign Treated with adenosine or diltiazem Wide-complex tachycardia of ventricular origin is…

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Episode 904: Cardiovascular Risks of Epinephrine

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Epinephrine is essential in the treatment of anaphylaxis, but is epinephrine dangerous from a cardiovascular perspective? A 2024 study in the Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians Open sought to answer this question. Methods: Retrospective observational study at a Tennessee quaternary care academic ED that analyzed ED…

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Episode 899: Thrombolytic Contraindications

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Thrombolytic therapy (tPA or TNK) is often used in the ED for strokes Use of anticoagulants with INR > 1.7 or  PT >15 Warfarin and heparin increase INR Factor Xa inhibitors like apixaban (Eliquis) and rivaroxaban (Xarelto) increase prothrombin time Intracranial or intraspinal surgery in the last 3 months…

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Episode 898: Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as “broken heart syndrome,” is a temporary heart condition that can mimic the symptoms of a heart attack, including troponin elevations and mimic STEMI on ECG. The exact cause is not fully understood, but it is often triggered by severe emotional or physical stress. The…

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Episode 897: Adrenal Crisis

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal MD Educational Pearls: Primary adrenal insufficiency (most common risk factor for adrenal crises) An autoimmune condition commonly known as Addison’s Disease Defects in the cells of the adrenal glomerulosa and fasciculata result in deficient glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids Mineralocorticoid deficiency leads to hyponatremia and hypovolemia Lack of aldosterone downregulates Endothelial Sodium Channels (ENaCs)…

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Episode 895: Indications for Exogenous Albumin

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: There are three indications for IV albumin in the ED Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) Patients with SBP develop renal failure from volume depletion Albumin repletes volume stores and reduces renal impairment Albumin binds inflammatory cytokines and expands plasma volume Reduced all-cause mortality if IV albumin is given with antibiotics…

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Episode 892: Tourniquets

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: What can you do to control bleeding in a penetrating wound? Apply direct pinpoint pressure on the wound as well as proximal to the wound. Build a compression dressing. How do you build a compression dressing? Think about building an upside-down pyramid with the gauze. Consider coagulation agents such…

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Podcast 889: Blood Pressure Cuff Size

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Does the size of a blood pressure (BP) cuff matter? A recent randomized crossover trial revealed that, indeed, cuff size can affect blood pressure readings Design 195 adults with varying mid-upper arm circumferences were randomized to the order of BP cuff application: Appropriate Too small Too large Individuals had…

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Podcast 883: Migraine Treatment in Cardiovascular Disease

Contributor: Jorge Chalit, OMS II Educational Pearls: Migraine pathophysiology Primarily mediated through the trigeminovascular system Serotonin, dopamine, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) Trigeminovascular system is linked to the trigeminal nucleus caudalis, which relays pain to the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex One effective treatment for acute migraines is -triptan medications 5-HT1D/1B agonists such as sumatriptan Often…

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