Airway Archives - Page 3 of 5 - The Emergency Medical Minute

Airway

Podcast #444: Dyspnea in the intubated patient

Author: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Dyspnea can occur in up to 50% of intubated patients Dyspnea is associated with prolonged mechanical intubation Often goes undiagnosed as these patients have difficulty communicating Expert opinion on reducing sensation of dyspnea Reduce stimulation of respiratory drive like fever and acidosis Give bronchodilators for patients with wheezing Optimize…

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Podcast #402: Rapid sequence intubation medications

Educational Pearls: RSI includes induction agent (sedative) and a paralytic Succinylcholine is a depolarizing paralytic of rapid onset and short duration with contraindications in hyperkalemic states and muscular dystrophy Rocuronium and vecuronium are longer acting, non-depolarizing paralytic, more commonly Common induction agents are etomidate and ketamine Ketamine can be particularly beneficial for bronchodilator effects in…

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Podcast #401: Foreign Body Aspiration

Author: Gretchen Hinson, MD Educational Pearls: Diagnosis can be difficult and often delayed Asymmetric breath sounds, choking, stridor may be present, but children also present asymptomatically Peak incidence around one to two years of age Hot dogs, nuts, popcorn – round and smooth objects are most commonly aspirated References: Green SS. Ingested and Aspirated Foreign…

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Podcast #383: Prehospital Tubes

Author:  Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: Two high-quality randomized control trials published in 2018 demonstrated no difference in mortality or neurologic outcomes when using a supraglottic airway compared to endotracheal intubation in out of hospital cardiac arrest These two trials enrolled over a combined 12000 patients Supraglottic airways have a higher success rate than intubations…

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Podcast #380: Oxygen for the kill

Author:  Ryan Circh, MD Educational Pearls:   Review of 25 randomized control trials encompassing 16,037 acutely ill hospitalized patients Patients given oxygen with saturations > 94% on room air were found to have associated increased mortality in-hospital, at 30-days, and at long-term follow up It may seem intuitive, but do not give oxygen to patients…

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Podcast # 348: Steakhouse Syndrome

Author: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Steakhouse syndrome is an impacted esophageal food bolus. Occurs because they have an esophageal stricture (schatzki ring, scarring, esophagitis). Classic treatments have consisted of effervescents, glucagon, and/or sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG). Recent case series has shown oral 400mcg tablet of NTG dissolved in 10cc tap water was 100% successful. Complications…

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Podcast # 337: Airway Burn Inhalation

Author: John Winkler, MD Educational Pearls: Singed nasal hairs, soot around mouth, hoarse voice, drooling, and burns to head/face are signs suggestive of inhalation injury. Early intubation is critical for these patients as the airway changes rapidly. With inhalation injuries, the upper airway is burned while the lower airway is damaged by inhaled chemicals in…

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Podcast #325: Vaping and Pneumonia

Author: Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: Being exposed to E-cigarette vapor may increase risk of pneumonia. Recent study has shown e-cigarette vapor increases quantities of Platelet-activating-receptor factor in epithelial cells, which may aid pneumococcal bacteria in entering pneumocytes. References: Miyashita L, et al. (2018). E-cigarette vapour enhances pneumococcal adherence to airway epithelial cells. The European…

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Podcast #315: Retropharyngeal Infections in Pediatrics

Author: Dr. Karen Woolf, MD Educational Pearls: Anatomy : base of skull to posterior mediastinum, anteriorly bounded by middle layer of deep cervical fascia and posteriorly by the deep layer, communicates to lateral pharyngeal space bounded by carotid sheath. Lymph node chains draining nasopharynx, sinuses, middle ear, etc. run through it. Epidemiology & Microbiology: most…

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Podcast #279: Sedation After Intubation

Author: Aaron Lessen, M.D. Educational Pearls Post-intubation care should always include pain control and adequate sedation. Commonly used sedation agents include propofol, ketamine and versed. However, too much sedation is harmful. Deep sedation (RASS -4 to -5)  is associated with worse long-term outcomes. RASS of 0 to -2 is ideal, as long as the patient…

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