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Episode 903: Treating Precipitated Opioid Withdrawal

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Opioid overdoses that are reversed with naloxone (Narcan), a mu-opioid antagonist, can precipitate acute withdrawal in some patients Treatment of opioid use disorder with buprenorphine can also precipitate withdrawal Opioid withdrawal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and agitation Buprenorphine works as a partial agonist at mu-opioid receptors, which may…

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Episode 902: Liver Failure and Cirrhosis

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: How do you differentiate between compensated and decompensated cirrhosis? Use the acronym VIBE to look for signs of being decompensated. V-Volume Cirrhosis can cause volume overload through a variety of mechanisms such as by increasing pressure in the portal vein system and the decreased production of albumin. Look for…

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Episode 901: Underdosing in Status Epilepticus

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Lorazepam (Ativan) is dosed at 0.1 mg/kg up to a maximum of 4 mg in status epilepticus Some ED protocols only give 2 mg initially The maximum recommended dose of levetiracetam (Keppra) is 60 mg/kg or 4.5 g In one retrospective study, only 50% of patients received the correct…

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Episode 900: Ketamine Dosing

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Ketamine is an NMDA receptor antagonist with a wide variety of uses in the emergency department. To dose ketamine remember the numbers 0.3, 1, and 3. Pain dose For acute pain relief administer 0.3 mg/kg of ketamine IV over 10-20 minutes (max of 30 mg). Note: There is evidence…

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Episode 899: Thrombolytic Contraindications

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Thrombolytic therapy (tPA or TNK) is often used in the ED for strokes Use of anticoagulants with INR > 1.7 or  PT >15 Warfarin and heparin increase INR Factor Xa inhibitors like apixaban (Eliquis) and rivaroxaban (Xarelto) increase prothrombin time Intracranial or intraspinal surgery in the last 3 months…

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Episode 898: Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as “broken heart syndrome,” is a temporary heart condition that can mimic the symptoms of a heart attack, including troponin elevations and mimic STEMI on ECG. The exact cause is not fully understood, but it is often triggered by severe emotional or physical stress. The…

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Episode 897: Adrenal Crisis

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal MD Educational Pearls: Primary adrenal insufficiency (most common risk factor for adrenal crises) An autoimmune condition commonly known as Addison’s Disease Defects in the cells of the adrenal glomerulosa and fasciculata result in deficient glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids Mineralocorticoid deficiency leads to hyponatremia and hypovolemia Lack of aldosterone downregulates Endothelial Sodium Channels (ENaCs)…

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Podcast 896: Cancer-Related Emergencies

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: Cancer-related emergencies can be sorted into a few buckets: Infection Cancer itself and the treatments (chemotherapy/radiation) can be immunosuppressive. Look out for conditions such as sepsis and neutropenic fever. Obstruction Cancer causes a hypercoagulable state. Look out for blood clots which can cause emergencies such as a pulmonary embolism,…

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Episode 895: Indications for Exogenous Albumin

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: There are three indications for IV albumin in the ED Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) Patients with SBP develop renal failure from volume depletion Albumin repletes volume stores and reduces renal impairment Albumin binds inflammatory cytokines and expands plasma volume Reduced all-cause mortality if IV albumin is given with antibiotics…

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Episode 894: DKA and HHS

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: What are DKA and HHS? DKA (Diabetic Ketoacidosis) and HHS (Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State) are both acute hyperglycemic states. DKA More common in type 1 diabetes. Triggered by decreased circulating insulin. The body needs energy but cannot use glucose because it can’t get it into the cells. This leads to…

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