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Episode 908: Sympathomimetic Drugs

Contributor: Taylor Lynch MD Educational Pearls: Overview: Sympathomimetic drugs mimic the fight or flight response, affecting monoamines such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine Limited therapeutic use, often abused. Types: Amphetamines: Methamphetamine, Adderall, Ritalin, Vyvanse MDMA (Ecstasy) Cocaine (Both hydrochloride salt & free based crack cocaine) Theophylline (Asthma treatment) Ephedrine (For low blood pressure) BZP, Oxymetazoline…

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Episode 907: Wide-Complex Tachycardia

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Wide-complex tachycardia is defined as a heart rate > 100 BPM with a QRS width > 120 milliseconds Wide-complex tachycardia of supraventricular origin is known as SVT with aberrancy Aberrancy is due to bundle branch blocks Mostly benign Treated with adenosine or diltiazem Wide-complex tachycardia of ventricular origin is…

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Episode 906: Case Study of Hypernatremia

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: The case: A gentleman came in from a nursing home with symptoms concerning for sepsis. He was hypotensive, hypoxic, febrile, and mentally altered. His past medical history included previous strokes which had left him with deficits for which he required a feeding tube. Initial workup included some point of…

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Episode 905: Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) for Influenza

Contributor: Aaron Lessem MD Educational Pearls:  Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) is an antiviral medication used commonly to treat influenza Trials show that the medication reduces the duration of illness by less than 1 day (~16 hours in one systematic review) Benefit only occurs if taken within 48 hours of symptom onset Must be taken for 5 days…

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Episode 904: Cardiovascular Risks of Epinephrine

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Epinephrine is essential in the treatment of anaphylaxis, but is epinephrine dangerous from a cardiovascular perspective? A 2024 study in the Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians Open sought to answer this question. Methods: Retrospective observational study at a Tennessee quaternary care academic ED that analyzed ED…

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Episode 903: Treating Precipitated Opioid Withdrawal

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Opioid overdoses that are reversed with naloxone (Narcan), a mu-opioid antagonist, can precipitate acute withdrawal in some patients Treatment of opioid use disorder with buprenorphine can also precipitate withdrawal Opioid withdrawal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and agitation Buprenorphine works as a partial agonist at mu-opioid receptors, which may…

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Episode 902: Liver Failure and Cirrhosis

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: How do you differentiate between compensated and decompensated cirrhosis? Use the acronym VIBE to look for signs of being decompensated. V-Volume Cirrhosis can cause volume overload through a variety of mechanisms such as by increasing pressure in the portal vein system and the decreased production of albumin. Look for…

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Episode 901: Underdosing in Status Epilepticus

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Lorazepam (Ativan) is dosed at 0.1 mg/kg up to a maximum of 4 mg in status epilepticus Some ED protocols only give 2 mg initially The maximum recommended dose of levetiracetam (Keppra) is 60 mg/kg or 4.5 g In one retrospective study, only 50% of patients received the correct…

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Episode 900: Ketamine Dosing

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Ketamine is an NMDA receptor antagonist with a wide variety of uses in the emergency department. To dose ketamine remember the numbers 0.3, 1, and 3. Pain dose For acute pain relief administer 0.3 mg/kg of ketamine IV over 10-20 minutes (max of 30 mg). Note: There is evidence…

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Episode 899: Thrombolytic Contraindications

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Thrombolytic therapy (tPA or TNK) is often used in the ED for strokes Use of anticoagulants with INR > 1.7 or  PT >15 Warfarin and heparin increase INR Factor Xa inhibitors like apixaban (Eliquis) and rivaroxaban (Xarelto) increase prothrombin time Intracranial or intraspinal surgery in the last 3 months…

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